Date : 2 November 2019
Natural Stone Floors, Information and Maintenance Methodology
TYPES OF STONE:
The familiar stone types that are used today are identified through four categories:
Sedimentary, Metamorphic, Igneous and Man-made stone.
I. Sedimentary stone came from organic elements such as glaciers, rivers, wind, oceans, and plants. Tiny sedimentary pieces broke off form these elements and accumulated to form rock beds. They were bonded through millions of years of heat and pressure.
a)Limestone: Mainly consists of calcite. It does not show such graining or crystalline structure. It has a smooth granular surface. Varies in hardness. Some dense limestone can be polished. Common colors are black, grey, white, yellow or brown. It is more likely to stain than marble. Limestone is known to contain lime from sea water. Most Marble are in the Limestone family category.
b)Sandstone: Is a very durable formation of quartz grains (sand). Usually formed in light brown or red colors. Categorized by the most popular sandstone bonding agents such as silica, calcium, clay, and iron oxide. Sandstone are usually matte finish and it is recommended to install at exterior façade and swimming pool area where slip resistance is important.
c)Soap stone: A very soft stone made of a variety of talc. It is a dense mineral that wears well and is often resistant to oxide.
d)Fossil stone: Considered a limestone that contains natural fossils such as sea-shells and plants. Limestone usually quarried from the mountainous land next to sea.
e)Travertine: Usually a cream or reddish color. It is formed through the accumulation of calcite from hot springs. It contains holes that were formed from water flowing through the stone. These holes are often filled with synthetic resins or cements. Requires a lot of maintenance if the holes are not filled. Classified as a limestone and a marble.
II. Metamorphic stones originate from a natural form of one type of stone to another type through the mixture of heat, pressure, and minerals. The change may be a development of a crystalline formation, a texture change, or a color change.
a)Marble: A recrystallized limestone that formed when the limestone softened from heat and pressure and recrystallized into marble where a mineral change occurred. The main consistency is calcium and dolomite. Ranges in many colors and is usually heavily veined and shows grains. Hardness rates from 2.5 to 5 on the MOH Scale.
Marble is classified into three categories:
1. Dolomite: If it has more than 40% magnesium carbonates.
2. Magnesium: If it has between 5% and 40% magnesium
3. Calcite: If it has less than 5% magnesium carbonate.
b)Slate: Fine grained metamorphic stone that is formed from clay, sedimentary rock shale, and sometimes quartz. Very thin and can break easily. Usually in black, gray or green.
c)Serpentine: Identified by its marks, which look like the skin of a serpent. Most popular colors are green and brown. Hardness rates from 2.5 to 4 on the MOH scale. Contains serpentine minerals and magnesium, and has an igneous origin. Does not always react well to recrystallization or diamond polishing.
III. Igneous stones are mainly formed through volcanic material such as magma. Underneath the Earth's surface, liquid magma cooled and solidified. Mineral gases and liquids penetrated into the stone and created new crystalline formations with various colors.
a)Granite: Primarily made of Quartz (35%), Feldspar (45%) and Mica. Usually comes in dark colors and contains very little calcite, if any. Provides a heavy crystalline and granular appearance with mineral grains. It is a very hard material and easier to maintain than marble. Yet, it is still porous and will stain. There are different types of granite depending on the percentage mix of quartz, mica and feldspar. Black granite is known as an Anorthosite. It contains very little quartz and feldspar and has a different composition than true granite.
IV. Man Made Stones are derived of unnatural mixtures such as resin or cement with the additive of stone chips.
a)Terrazzo: Marble and granite chips embedded in a cement composition.
b)Agglomerate or Engineered stone: Marble chips embedded in a colored resin composition.
c)Compressed or Faux Marble: A mix of resins that are painted or mixed with a paint to looks like marble.
Presntly there are many companies around the world that use generic names to identify different types of stone. This has created a problem for the stone maintenance industry. The original names were in Italian. Usually the name consists of two parts. The first part describes the color and second part describes the name from where the stone was quarried.
|ITALIAN NAME||ENGLISH COLOR|
|Porato / D'oro||Gold|
|Creama||Beige / Cream|
Nero Marquina is a black limestone from Marquina, Spain.
Bianco Carrara is a white marble from Carrara, Italy.
Bianco Volakas from Greece.
Majority of marble stone are bought in block or precut from China as the geographical and consumption quantities gave the country the strength as a distribution center for Asia entire.
TYPES OF SURFACE TEXTURES
There are many different types of stone available today. When stone is ordered, it is fabricated with a particular type of surface. There are six main type of surfaces that are selected:
Honed: Provides a flat to low sheen gloss. Different levels of gloss can be selected. This surface is very smooth, but often very porous. This texture is common in high traffic buildings. Honed floors should always be protected with Penetrating Sealer because it has wide-open pores. Honed stone colors are not as vibrant as polished stone.
Polished: A glossy surfaces that wears away with time due to heavy foot traffic and using improper maintenance procedure. This surface is very smooth and not porous. The reflectively of polished crystals brings out the brilliant colors and grains of natural stone. The shine comes from the natural reflection of the stone's crystals. The shine is due to polishing bricks and polishing powders used during fabrication. The Shine is not from a coating.
Flamed: A rough surface that is developed through heat. During fabrication, the stone is heated up and the crystals begin to pop, thus forming a rough surface. This surface is very porous and must be treated with an impregnator.
Sand Blasted: This surface is the result of a pressurized flow of sand water that provides a textured surface with a matte gloss.
Sawn: A Process performed by using a gang saw.
Bush Hammered: A pounding action that develops a textured surface. The degree of roughness can be selected.
Regardless of the type of surface to be maintained, all stone should be protected with sealers.
As discussed previously, stone was formed from different types of natural minerals. Marble's main consistency is calcium. Calcium carbonate is the natural source that bonds the stone. Certain additive minerals blended into during formation to customize these brilliant colors. The additive minerals are also color developers present in granite and other natural stones.
|Black||Biotite, Hornblende, Carbon|
|Gray||Variety of minerals|
|Green||Mica, Chloride, Silicate|
|White||Feldspar, Calcite, Dolomite|
|Augite||Brown, Green, Black, Purple|
|Biotite||Black, Brown, Green|
|Calcite||Pearlescent and Pale Colors|
|Dolomite||Colorless, Pink, Pale Brown|
|Feldspar||Yellow, White, Pink, Green, Grey|
|Hematite||Metallic Grey or Black|
|Hornblende||Green, Yellow, Brown, Black|
|Limonite||Black, Brown, or Yellow|
Minerals have a variety of crystalline properties. For instance, Augite (listed above) has different crystalline properties. Each property has its own color. Stones brilliant colors and various crystal formations developed when different mineral properties blended together along with the integration of temperature and pressure.
The veins and color grains of marble were liquid minerals that flowed through the stone when the Earth heated up. The intense heat softened the limestone to allow the liquid to flow through it. When the Earth cooled, the mineral flow stopped and gradually hardened to its state.
The delicate colors of stone often can altered by the improper use of cleaning chemical, mopping with dirty be solution, using chemicals that are not designed for stone care, and sunlight can fade the color of natural minerals.
There are 2 types of polishing method :-
|Conventional Floor Strip and Wax||- Fast processing
- Slip resistant
- Allow static discharge
- Low skill training
|- Scuff marks
- Low durability
- High daily maintenance
- Artificial gloss
|Diamond Cut and Crystallization||- Natural shine
- Durable gloss
- Quick drying
- No scuff marks
|- High skill
- Not suitable with cold weather
- More expensive start-up cost
Complete Stone Restoration Program
The following programs are the complete restoration program that can be utilized for restoring the stone flooring.
Nano diamond polishing is use for removing scratches and restoring shine with Nano colloidal compound to impregnate on the stone surface to protect stone against staining.
Epoxy diamond polishing is for stone that has many chipped or uneven marking. The color epoxy is to be inserted into the cracks or chips and provide your floor with brand-new finishing.
Nano diamond polishing
- Resurface with MS Diamond 150, 300, 500, 1000 & 2000
- Vacuum excess slurry
- Polish with EC Marble Polishing Powder
- Apply 1 coat MS Nano and polish with steel wool pad
- Buff with UHS machine for reinforcement
Epoxy diamond polishing
- Resurface floor with coarse diamond to open pores
- Allow 1 day drying time
- Apply 2 coats Epoxy on the floor
- Allow 1 day drying time
- Resurface from medium to fine diamond
- Polish with EC Marble Polishing Powder
Apply EC Silicone Impregnator for protection
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USP : We not only make your floor looks good, we show you how to maintain the desired finish that any layman can do
Pain and Solutions :